Reformed Theology TIL the Justinian Code outlawed images of Christ within the Byzantine Empire  Calvinism

TIL the Justinian Code outlawed images of Christ within the Byzantine Empire

Reformed Theology TIL the Justinian Code outlawed images of Christ within the Byzantine Empire  Calvinism
TIL the Justinian Code outlawed images of Christ within the Byzantine Empire

I'll have to dig into this more, but it's interesting that the icon-rich Byzantine Empire outlawed images of Christ very early in its existence. Book I, Title VIII states,

NO ONE SHALL BE PERMITTED TO CARVE OR PAINT THE IMAGE OF OUR SAVIOUR JESUS CHRIST UPON EARTH, STONE OR MARBLE.

  1. The Emperors Theodosius and Valentinian to Eudoxius, Prætorian Prefect.

As it is Our diligent care to guard in every way the religion of the Celestial Divinity, We specially command that no one shall be permitted to trace, carve, or paint the image of Christ the Saviour either upon the earth, upon stone, or upon marble placed in the earth, but

it shall be erased wherever found; and anyone who attempts to violate Our laws in this respect shall be subject to a heavy penalty.

Given on the twelfth of the Kalends of June, during the Consulate of Hierius and Ardaburius, 427.

Note, alternatively "images" can translate as "sign" of the Saviour Jesus Christ (I assume meaning the cross) but from the notes, "images" seems to be a better translation.

“It was still reckoned a heathen practice to represent objects of worship by pictures. Gieseler, 1 Ecclesiastical History 427. Images of the Savior bound to the cross were first introduced about the end of the 6th century. Kurtz, Church History § 60.”

I’ll have to dig into this more, but it’s interesting that the icon-rich Byzantine Empire outlawed images of Christ very early in its existence. Book I, Title VIII states,NO ONE SHALL BE PERMITTED TO CARVE OR PAINT THE IMAGE OF OUR SAVIOUR JESUS CHRIST UPON EARTH, STONE OR MARBLE.The Emperors Theodosius and Valentinian to Eudoxius, Prætorian Prefect.As it is Our diligent care to guard in every way the religion of the Celestial Divinity, We specially command that no one shall be permitted to trace, carve, or paint the image of Christ the Saviour either upon the earth, upon stone, or upon marble placed in the earth, butit shall be erased wherever found; and anyone who attempts to violate Our laws in this respect shall be subject to a heavy penalty.Given on the twelfth of the Kalends of June, during the Consulate of Hierius and Ardaburius, 427.Note, alternatively “images” can translate as “sign” of the Saviour Jesus Christ (I assume meaning the cross) but from the notes, “images” seems to be a better translation.“It was still reckoned a heathen practice to represent objects of worship by pictures. Gieseler, 1 Ecclesiastical History 427. Images of the Savior bound to the cross were first introduced about the end of the 6th century. Kurtz, Church History § 60.”
Link: TIL the Justinian Code outlawed images of Christ within the Byzantine Empire
Submitted by mattb93

Reformed Theology Why did Luther not consider the Book of James to be considered valid?  Calvinism

Why did Luther not consider the Book of James to be considered valid?

Reformed Theology Why did Luther not consider the Book of James to be considered valid?  Calvinism
Why did Luther not consider the Book of James to be considered valid?

I just found this out, after hearing it mentioned by a Catholic convert, and I have never heard this before, but I looked it up and saw that it was real, but they never gave a reason why.

I just found this out, after hearing it mentioned by a Catholic convert, and I have never heard this before, but I looked it up and saw that it was real, but they never gave a reason why.
Link: Why did Luther not consider the Book of James to be considered valid?
Submitted by foreveraloneshort

Reformed Theology How do you "reform" worship in a church?  Calvinism

How do you “reform” worship in a church?

Reformed Theology How do you "reform" worship in a church?  Calvinism
How do you “reform” worship in a church?

So, the director of music at my church is wanting to step down, and my church has asked me to be the new director. I agreed to take over the music, and the old director has handed everything off to me, and I have been directing the music for the past several Sundays. I have been studying worship for a few months now, and through my studying I have become convicted of some things pertaining to our worship.

The Hymn books that we use are Evangelical Hymn books, which, of course, put a lot of emphasis on the Cross and Heaven. This is not necessarily a bad thing. I love singing about the Cross, and I love to sing about going to Heaven some day. These hymnals are not lacking in their availability of songs pertaining to Christ and Heaven. However, I think it's sad that when you flip through our hymnals that you may find only two or three songs which are songs of adoration and praise to our God. I think it's sad that there are no songs pertaining to communion or baptism, or psalms for that matter! My church unknowingly holds to exclusive hymnody, and probably has never sang the psalms before. I feel that there are so many things that my church is missing out on, because we have been singing the same hymns for years.

I want to know how I can go about introducing the church to new hymns, while not trying to appear as if I am trying to change everything. I don't want to go in there and change everything, but I do think that some new hymns, or even a new hymnal, could be introduced and be helpful to our worship. I talked to my Sunday School class about it, and pointed out that there are very few hymns that are available to sing which are songs of Adoration and Praise to God. One guy said that he never thought about it like that before, but it is true. Another guy said that he would be for introducing more hymns, and told me to do it.

I would appreciate any advice anybody would be willing to share with me. Has your church been through this kind of change before, and if so, how did you go about instituting these changes? This may pertain to anything, really, not just hymns. Whether it is changing something about communion, the song service, preaching, etc. I'm interested in how one can go about reforming worship in a church.

So, the director of music at my church is wanting to step down, and my church has asked me to be the new director. I agreed to take over the music, and the old director has handed everything off to me, and I have been directing the music for the past several Sundays. I have been studying worship for a few months now, and through my studying I have become convicted of some things pertaining to our worship.The Hymn books that we use are Evangelical Hymn books, which, of course, put a lot of emphasis on the Cross and Heaven. This is not necessarily a bad thing. I love singing about the Cross, and I love to sing about going to Heaven some day. These hymnals are not lacking in their availability of songs pertaining to Christ and Heaven. However, I think it’s sad that when you flip through our hymnals that you may find only two or three songs which are songs of adoration and praise to our God. I think it’s sad that there are no songs pertaining to communion or baptism, or psalms for that matter! My church unknowingly holds to exclusive hymnody, and probably has never sang the psalms before. I feel that there are so many things that my church is missing out on, because we have been singing the same hymns for years.I want to know how I can go about introducing the church to new hymns, while not trying to appear as if I am trying to change everything. I don’t want to go in there and change everything, but I do think that some new hymns, or even a new hymnal, could be introduced and be helpful to our worship. I talked to my Sunday School class about it, and pointed out that there are very few hymns that are available to sing which are songs of Adoration and Praise to God. One guy said that he never thought about it like that before, but it is true. Another guy said that he would be for introducing more hymns, and told me to do it.I would appreciate any advice anybody would be willing to share with me. Has your church been through this kind of change before, and if so, how did you go about instituting these changes? This may pertain to anything, really, not just hymns. Whether it is changing something about communion, the song service, preaching, etc. I’m interested in how one can go about reforming worship in a church.
Link: How do you “reform” worship in a church?
Submitted by Backwoods_Boy

Reformed Theology Greek New Testament Audio?  Calvinism

Greek New Testament Audio?

Reformed Theology Greek New Testament Audio?  Calvinism
Greek New Testament Audio?

In light of the esv audio post, I want to ask if anyone had a good resources for the Greek new testament? I'm slowly learning koine Greek and I wish to immerse myself more into it. Plus, it would help me with pronunciation of words.

In light of the esv audio post, I want to ask if anyone had a good resources for the Greek new testament? I’m slowly learning koine Greek and I wish to immerse myself more into it. Plus, it would help me with pronunciation of words.
Link: Greek New Testament Audio?
Submitted by JudimSkoch

Reformed Theology Questions/thoughts on Romans 1  Calvinism

Questions/thoughts on Romans 1

Reformed Theology Questions/thoughts on Romans 1  Calvinism
Questions/thoughts on Romans 1

So I read through Romans 1:18‭-‬32 again and had some questions/thoughts about it. I've been having some nagging doubts and struggling with belief recently so I turned to this passage to see what it was saying. Here's what I noticed, highlighted:

For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who by their unrighteousness suppress the truth. For what can be known about God is plain to them, because God has shown it to them. For his invisible attributes, namely, his eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly perceived, ever since the creation of the world, in the things that have been made. So they are without excuse. For although they knew God, they did not honor him as God or give thanks to him, but they became futile in their thinking, and their foolish hearts were darkened. Claiming to be wise, they became fools, and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images resembling mortal man and birds and animals and creeping things. Therefore God gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, to the dishonoring of their bodies among themselves, because they exchanged the truth about God for a lie and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever! Amen. For this reason God gave them up to dishonorable passions. For their women exchanged natural relations for those that are contrary to nature; and the men likewise gave up natural relations with women and were consumed with passion for one another, men committing shameless acts with men and receiving in themselves the due penalty for their error. And since they did not see fit to acknowledge God, God gave them up to a debased mind to do what ought not to be done. They were filled with all manner of unrighteousness, evil, covetousness, malice. They are full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, maliciousness. They are gossips, slanderers, haters of God, insolent, haughty, boastful, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents, foolish, faithless, heartless, ruthless. Though they know God's righteous decree that those who practice such things deserve to die, they not only do them but give approval to those who practice them.

So, any atheist I've heard speaking about this passage say that they don't suppress the truth but simply don't believe it to be true, just like they don't believe dragons or unicorns to exist.

So from this text would it be safe to say that atheism or unbelief in general is actually a form of God's judgement? This passage repeatedly shows that God "gave them up" because of their sin. So has God allowed them to become blind to the truth as a form of judgement on them?

And how would this apply to my current situation? I've been really confused lately and struggling with belief…is God judging me by not allowing me to see the truth?

Thanks folks.

So I read through Romans 1:18‭-‬32 again and had some questions/thoughts about it. I’ve been having some nagging doubts and struggling with belief recently so I turned to this passage to see what it was saying. Here’s what I noticed, highlighted:For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who by their unrighteousness suppress the truth. For what can be known about God is plain to them, because God has shown it to them. For his invisible attributes, namely, his eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly perceived, ever since the creation of the world, in the things that have been made. So they are without excuse. For although they knew God, they did not honor him as God or give thanks to him, but they became futile in their thinking, and their foolish hearts were darkened. Claiming to be wise, they became fools, and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images resembling mortal man and birds and animals and creeping things. Therefore God gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, to the dishonoring of their bodies among themselves, because they exchanged the truth about God for a lie and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever! Amen. For this reason God gave them up to dishonorable passions. For their women exchanged natural relations for those that are contrary to nature; and the men likewise gave up natural relations with women and were consumed with passion for one another, men committing shameless acts with men and receiving in themselves the due penalty for their error. And since they did not see fit to acknowledge God, God gave them up to a debased mind to do what ought not to be done. They were filled with all manner of unrighteousness, evil, covetousness, malice. They are full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, maliciousness. They are gossips, slanderers, haters of God, insolent, haughty, boastful, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents, foolish, faithless, heartless, ruthless. Though they know God’s righteous decree that those who practice such things deserve to die, they not only do them but give approval to those who practice them.So, any atheist I’ve heard speaking about this passage say that they don’t suppress the truth but simply don’t believe it to be true, just like they don’t believe dragons or unicorns to exist.So from this text would it be safe to say that atheism or unbelief in general is actually a form of God’s judgement? This passage repeatedly shows that God “gave them up” because of their sin. So has God allowed them to become blind to the truth as a form of judgement on them?And how would this apply to my current situation? I’ve been really confused lately and struggling with belief…is God judging me by not allowing me to see the truth?Thanks folks.
Link: Questions/thoughts on Romans 1
Submitted by carmangled

Reformed Theology Spiritual Warfare: A Biblical & Balanced Perspective  Calvinism

Spiritual Warfare: A Biblical & Balanced Perspective

Reformed Theology Spiritual Warfare: A Biblical & Balanced Perspective  Calvinism
Spiritual Warfare: A Biblical & Balanced Perspective

http://www.wisereader.com/2017/11/20/spiritual-warfare-a-biblical-balanced-perspective/

Spiritual warfare is real, wreaking havoc in our world. It is not a war of bullets, bombs and drones; of planes, warships and tanks; but a war that rages in the hearts and minds of all who listen to satanic lies – lies bombarding us from many directions, but always rooted in that malignant being known as the devil. These lies lure us away from worshiping and obeying the one true God revealed in the 66 books of the Bible.

http://www.wisereader.com/2017/11/20/spiritual-warfare-a-biblical-balanced-perspective/Spiritual warfare is real, wreaking havoc in our world. It is not a war of bullets, bombs and drones; of planes, warships and tanks; but a war that rages in the hearts and minds of all who listen to satanic lies – lies bombarding us from many directions, but always rooted in that malignant being known as the devil. These lies lure us away from worshiping and obeying the one true God revealed in the 66 books of the Bible.
Link: Spiritual Warfare: A Biblical & Balanced Perspective
Submitted by WiseReader

Reformed Theology Atheist objection to presuppositional arguements  Calvinism

Atheist objection to presuppositional arguements

Reformed Theology Atheist objection to presuppositional arguements  Calvinism
Atheist objection to presuppositional arguements

How do you answer the objection from the atheist, "That's fine that you say that you need a universal standard as the basis for everything, but why is it your (i.e., the biblical) standard?"

How do you answer the objection from the atheist, “That’s fine that you say that you need a universal standard as the basis for everything, but why is it your (i.e., the biblical) standard?”
Link: Atheist objection to presuppositional arguements
Submitted by Samonites